Switching regulators are circuits that transform voltage and input current into a voltage and an output current of suitable level for properly feed the system, compensating for variations in the load and input voltage. They regulate energy transfer to maintain a constant output voltage within the circuit limits.
They are use for single-cell or multi-cell battery powered applications and for portable electronic devices that are battery powered. They can prevent short circuits and ensure over voltage and under voltage protection. Switching regulators protect electronic systems from over current and over temperature damage.
The basic circuit of the switching regulator can be configured to increase (step up or boost), reduce (step down or buck), or reverse the output voltage with respect to the input voltage (inverters). Switching regulators offer several advantages over linear voltage regulators. The main advantage is the high conversion efficiency, up to 95%. They often do not require external capacitors.